Generous land and a favorable climate have caused the inhabitants of the territory of the present city since ancient times. The establishment of the Chronicle of Vinnytsia since 1363 relates to the attempt of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania to assert its dominance in Podillia after the defeat of the Tatar-Mongols.
The history of the city is inseparable from the history of the Ukrainian people, who fought for his right to be the ruler of his land throughout his life. It was not easy for our ancestors to live during internecine wars in the Lithuanian Principality, 30 of the devastating Tatars’ attacks took place in Vinnytsia from 1400 to 1569. But under these difficult conditions, the city developed as an economic and cultural center. The earliest mention of the Vinnytsia student, a student at Krakow University, is known since 1469, and the first artisan — from 1508. In 1545, there were 273 houses in Vinnytsia, in the next seven years — 429. With the construction of a new fortress on Kemp’s island in 1558, a new city emerged on the right bank of the Southern Bug and continued to develop the «Old Town» on the left.
According to the Lublin Union, Vinnytsia was part of Poland and since 1598 it was the center of the Bratslav Voivodship. Its tangible role in the economic life of the region is evidenced by the privileges of duty-free trade in the entire territory of the Polish-Lithuanian state granted in 1580, 1593 and 1634, and the establishment of the Magdeburg Law in 1640.
Important processes in those years proceeded in the spiritual life of its inhabitants. Catholics in 1617 and 1624 completed the construction of two monasteries, in 1642 opened the Jesuit collegium. Among the Orthodox believers, the popularity of the Vinnytsia Brotherhood Kuzma and Demyan, which since the last quarter of the XVI century kept the Ukrainian fraternal school, grew. Thanks to the efforts of the well-known figure in the culture of Petro Mohyla and the brotherly suicide of Mikhail Kropivnytsky in 1632, an Orthodox collegium was opened.
The decisive event of this century in the history of the city was the defeat of the Polish army in March 1651 by the Cossack regiments under the leadership of the famous Ivan Bohun. In 1643 and 1653 Bogdan Khmelnytsky visited Vinnytsia.
After the accession of Right-Bank Ukraine to Russia and the formation of the Podolsk province in 1797, the city became the center of the Vinnytsia district, and at the beginning of 1798 it introduced the «Municipal Status», and throughout the territory of Russia it was introduced only after 1801. From these times, the gradual growth of the city was noticeable, and in 1860 there were already 10 thousand inhabitants, 5 schools, a hospital, and 190 shops. Worked the theater.
An important stimulus for the further development of the city was the construction of the Kyiv-Balta Railroad and the opening of the Kozyatin-Zdolbuniv railway connection, which opened the door for direct connections with Kyiv, Odessa, Moscow, St. Petersburg and Poland. In the last 40 years of the XIX century, Vinnytsia has grown almost three and a half times. She belonged to the first place in the Podilsky province in terms of trade turnover.
The city changed considerably in the early 20th century. In 1911, the first stage of the water supply was constructed, electric lighting was installed. In 1912 Tram connection of Zamoosty with the center of the city was opened, the construction of a superphosphate plant was completed.
Since 1914, Vinnitsa has become the administrative center of Podilsk province.
The turbulent events took place in the city during 1917-1918. The authorities held revolutionary committees of workers ‘and soldiers’ deputies, the protagonists of the Austro-Hungarian troops, the Denikin Army. Meanwhile, in the hotel «Savoy» in the center of the city was temporarily the government of the Ukrainian People’s Republic.
In 1923, the city became the center of the district, and from 1932 to the present time it became the administrative center of the Vinnytsia region.
The city suffered irreparable losses during the repressions of the communist regime. The most devastating damage was caused to him by the German invaders who installed a special regime in Vinnitsa in connection with the placement of the «Werwolf» rate. During the war of 1941-1945, the number of inhabitants from 100 thousand decreased to 27 thousand, out of 50 industrial enterprises only 10 survived, 1880 houses were completely destroyed. The heroic efforts of the Vinnytsia and the envoys of other regions of the country at the end of 1948 almost completely rebuilt the city’s industry, and in the years to come, the electronic, radio engineering and metalworking industries and other branches of power were developed in the regional center.
In 1972, the city formed three districts.
Vinnitsa is one of the largest cities of the Right Bank Ukraine, the largest city of Central Ukraine, the administrative and territorial center of the Vinnytsia region. The city is one of the most attractive places to invest in Ukraine, with industrial and high scientific potential, developed transport infrastructure, banking system, and favorable business climate. The total area of Vinnytsia is 68.68 km2, and the population is 371.4 thousand people (2012).
Vinnitsa is at a distance of 258 km from the capital of Ukraine, Kyiv. The city is characterized by high-quality automobile and railway communication with all regions of the country and ports of the Azov and Black Seas. The airport «Vinnitsa» (Havryshivka) is located 7.5 km east of the railway station of Vinnytsia.
Vinnytsia actively develops as an industrial and administrative center of the region, connected with other regions of the state. The city has representative offices of state authorities and international institutions: the Territorial Department of the Accounting Chamber of Ukraine in Vinnytsia, Zhytomyr, Kirovograd and Khmelnytsky regions, the Air Forces Command Headquarters of the Armed Forces of Ukraine, the Consulate General of the Republic of Poland and the coordination center of the Euroregion «Dnister».
Vinnitsa is characterized by developed transport infrastructure. The total length of the roads is 356 km, along with 22 motor roads and pedestrian bridges, of which three are large across the river Pivdennyi Bug. Almost 90% of the able-bodied population of the city enjoys public transport services. Annually, more than 170 million passengers are transported by Vinnytsia city passenger transport. The public transport network includes 5 tram routes, 14 trolleybuses, 9 bus routes, and 29 route taxi routes. The main source of public transport energy is electric energy, which accounts for more than 70% of total transport.
Today Vinnytsia is actively developing as an educational and medical center. The city is known for its medical, technical, pedagogical and agrarian universities. The educational system includes 13 higher educational establishments, 40 secondary schools (37 of which belongs to the city), 55 preschools (47 of which belong to the city) and 3 out-of-school educational establishments. The health care system in the city is represented by almost 40 medical and prophylactic and medical institutions, of which 15 are in the ownership of the city of Vinnytsia. The city has a developed network of private medical institutions.
Vinnitsa is also the cultural capital of Podillya. 139 different cultural institutions offer a wide range of events. The main attraction of the city is the square with the Water Tower and the largest music fountain in Ukraine. Among other monuments of the city is the Museum-Manor of the outstanding surgeon M.I. Pirogov, House AA Brusilova, House-Museum M.M. Kotsiubynsky, religious and Vinnytsya 4.jpgfortification buildings of the XVII-XVIII centuries and the ruins of the secret residence of Hitler — «Werwolf». Not far from the modern city center is the old Jewish quarter — Jerusalem. Famous people of Vinnitschyna: Nikolai Ivanovich Pirogov (Russian surgeon and anatomy), Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky (Russian composer), Nikolai Dmitrievich Leontovich (Ukrainian composer), Mikhail Mikhailovich Kotsyubinsky (Ukrainian writer), Zelman Waxman (microbiologist, Nobel Prize laureate) and others.